Minimal-dose cancer chemotherapy: Anti-cancer drugs loaded nanodevices towards time, site, and organ-specific releases for development of personalized nanomedicine

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The objective of the present study was to develop a site specific, time controlled and organ targeted anti-cancer drug delivery nanosystem comprising of nano-particles of polymeric origins for treatment of cancer in minimum dose regimen. Nano-spheres that target cancer cells and gradually release drugs is bound to make treatment safer and more effective by way of delivering the anti cancer drug more precisely in required dose and time at the site. A single treatment of drug-bearing or drug loaded nanocapsule is possible and can effectively destroy/dysfunction tumors. The key to nanoparticles effectiveness is their ability because of the surface attachments of receptor specific ribo-nucleic acids or other specified proteins to bind to the specific cancer cell membrane or the outer periphery of the tumor via a host-guest mechanism. The specificity comes from the intact delivery of the nanosystem via injectable nanosystems or through adjacent delivery and its cellular adsorption. Presumably, the cell pulls the receptor specific nanodevices, binds or engulfs the nanosystem inside. The drug is under slow release through polymeric rupture of the nanodevice triggered by several tumor related factors. Having the particles inside the cell has two advantages: it gets the drug where it needs to be to kill the cells and it decreases the concentration of the drug outside the cancer cells thereby decreasing toxicity to healthy tissue. The fact that the polymer releases the drug gradually helps the drug to be released over the hours or days and some time months where it continues killing/dysfunctionalizing the cells/tumors. A series of different nanodevices from polymeric and drug encapsulated nanocapsules were prepared with anti cancer drugs. The nano-device surface was surface functionalized with carrier-capable proteins. The nanoparticles made up of several synthetic and natural carbohydrate polymers and belonging to other different chemical categories and clinically compatible, FDA approved categories were used for effective encapsulation. The nanosystems were characterized for their shape, size and load capacity, concentration vs. density and polymer characteristics for required device. A detailed analysis for quantitative release analyses will be undertaken based on established literature protocol for specific drugs in a simulated environment. A specific nanodevice developed as a targeted carrier for specific tumor at specified location and with time bound targeted release to the organ or tissue will eventually lead us to design a more personalized nanomedicine for patients keeping in view of the patients’ physiological conditions, choices and delivery mode preferences. This will be a step closer to personalized medicine.

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Journal: TechConnect Briefs
Volume: 3, Nanotechnology 2010: Bio Sensors, Instruments, Medical, Environment and Energy
Published: June 21, 2010
Pages: 397 - 400
Industry sector: Medical & Biotech
Topicss: Biomaterials, Cancer Nanotechnology
ISBN: 978-1-4398-3415-2